A friend recently introduced me to the idea of “emotional flooding”, which I have found useful. As I currently understand it, it’s the state when you are overwhelmed by some input, eg someone has given you negative feedback or whatever. You can no longer process any new information, you’re just still reacting to that first trigger. It’s related to fight or flight, probably – though maybe not adrenaline. I don’t know how strong is the scientific evidence but it’s useful both to recognize in yourself and in other people – you may need to wait until someone finishes their flooding before you finish a conversation, or just give them space.